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world war 2
By Charlotte Dinan
From Country Girl To National Hero
Lucie Aubrac (born Lucie Bernard) was born in Mâcon, France on the 29th June, 1912, was a French history teacher and has been revered for her brave efforts
through the underground network Libération Sud, in southern France, during WWII. She has been awarded for her notable achievement s including many large scale escape, including the rescue of her husband, Raymond Aubrac, and Resistance leaders from the Gestapo. Lucie died March 14, 2007 in Issy-Les-Moulineaux, France.
A History of Lucie
Born in 1912, Lucie grew up with her parents, burgandy winegrowers, in Mâcon. There is little information about her childhood ( because it was destroyed when the war began for her safety) until she went i university, where she studied history. She visited Nazi Germany during the 1936 Olympic Games, and began to feel distressed about Hitler's activity.
She began teaching after the outbreak of WWII, and married fellow member of the French Communist Party, Raymond Samuel, in 1939. Due to Raymond's status of 'Jew', the couple later change their name from Samuel to Aubrac. The couple later moved to unoccupied Lyon after the defeat of France in 1940.
With the assistance of Emmanuel d'Astier, Lucie helped to form
left-wing Libération-sud resistance group, and for the next two years Lucie and Raymond, engineer, lived double lives as resistance leaders.
May 1941, Lucie gave birth to her first child Jean-Pierre, who Lucie brought frequently to resistance meetings, in order to redirect the attention of the Milice (secret police in France). Raymond Aubrac and Jean Moulin were arrested by the Gestapo on the 21 June, 1943, and Jean Moulin died later that year, due to injuries sustained during torture. After convincing the Gestapo she wished to marry Raymond Aubrac for the sake of their unborn child, a wedding was held on the 21 October, 1943, and one the way back to the prison Lucie, and other armed resistance members attack the lorry, freeing Raymond and 13 other resistance members.
After revealing their identities, through the escape, Lucie, Raymond and Jean-Pierre went into hiding before moving to London in February, 1944. The couple later had their second child, Catherine, on the 12 of February, who later became Charles de Gaulle's goddaughter.
After the war, Lucie had her teaching degree restored and went back to teaching history. The couple remained strong members of the French Communist Party and Lucie was also active in the campaign for human rights. In retirement, Lucie travelled to different schools retelling her story and her experiences during WWII and her time as part of the resistance, later releasing her memoirs, "Outwitting The Gestapo". Lucie and Raymond also welcomed their third child, Elizabette, although her birthday is unknown.
Lucie died, aged 94, in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.
Lucie made her mark on history through her efforts and heroism in the French Resistance during WWII. Lucie, along with her husband, were founding members of the Libération-sud resistance group, and Lucie was know for her organisation of daring prison escapes. In 1943, she organised and led an attack on a Gestapo prison truck, releasing her husband Raymond and 13 other resistance members, and leaving 6 Germans dead (5 Gestapo guards and the truck driver). She also worked closely with Jean Moulin, a notable name in history due to his enormous efforts in "spearheading and uniting the resistance in France".
Lucie and her husband are well recognised as spokespersons for the resistance in France in WWII, with Lucie speaking in schools across France, retelling her experiences. she also released her memoirs, "Outwitting The Gestapo", and a film was later made focusing on the 1943 prison escape.
Lucie is admired by many around the world, in particular feminist historians, for her courageous display of female roles during WWII.
A Timeline of Lucie
Lucie Aubrac (nee. Bernard) is born on the 29 of June.
Lucie marries Raymond Samuel in December (they will later change their name to Aubrac for safety reasons).
Lucie and Raymond move to unoccupied Lyon and help to develop the Libération-sud resistance group.
Lucie and Raymond's first child, Jean-Pierre is born in May.
Jean Moulin and Raymond Aubrac are arrested in Lyon, By the Gestapo, on the 21 of June.
Lucie leads an attack on a prison truck, releasing Raymond Aubrac and 13 other resistance members from the Gestapo, on the 21 of October.
Aubrac family goes into hiding in London, February, after revealing their identities.
Lucie and Raymond's second child, Catherine, is born on the 12 of February.
Lucie publishes her memoirs, "Outwitting The Gestapo".
Lucie dies, aged 94, on the 14 of March, in Issy-les-Moulineaux
A Map of Lucie's Life
Primary Sources regarding Lucie
"Resistance is not just something locked away in the period 1939-45. Resistance is a way of life, an intellectual and emotional reaction to anything which threatens human liberty."
- A statement made by Lucie after WWII
This statement shows her desire for equality and human rights. She explains how when you fight for something you believe in you don't fight for a couple of day, but for how ever long it takes until you reach your goal. The desire you have to make difference consumes you, and it will continue to burn inside you every time you believe in something and you try and make a change. She explain how she feels about her experiences and about how they have shaped her as a person. This source is useful because it helps us to establish and understand about how she feels her experiences as part of the French resistance and after the end of WWII.
A cartoon depicting that the Frence resistance is still "verry much alive!"
- A cartoon depicting that the French resistance is still "verry much alive!"
This source depicts Hitler's control over France not being 'air tight'. Although Germany defeated France on the battlefields, they were unable to squash the hope and life out the French resistance, who continued to fight after Germany had taken control. This picture display Hitler being taken by surprise by the French, illustrating the many attacks made by the resistance to weaken Germany's grasp on France. this source is useful because to describe the weakening control Germany had over France, and how France was slowly fighting back despite Germany's attempts to 'contain' them.
- Lucie Aubrac displaying her support for the Jewish people during WWII.
Lucie is displayed in this source wear a Star of David badge, forcibly worn by Jewish people in Europe during WWII. This symbol was used to single out and degrade Jewish people, and Lucie is showing her support for the Jewish people, throughout WWII and her life up until now. Lucie and her husband, Raymond, changed their name from Samuel to Aubrac due to Raymond's status of 'Jew', and Lucie fought alongside Raymond and may other Jewish people during her time in the resistance. Lucie wears the with respect for the millions of Jewish people affected by WWII, and this is a great example of her personality and her opinions.
The perspectives displayed through all these source are positive about Lucie and the resistance. They all display courage through the resistance' efforts in fighting the Gestapo (source 2), and through Lucie's personal choices and dedication (source 1 and 3). However, there was only a small number of sources that I could find, and there were no sources concerning the conspiracies surrounding Lucie and Raymond Aubrac. although allegations had been made there was not sufficient evidence, therefore placing more confirmation on these particular sources depicting Lucie as a true heroine of the French resistance.
Pictures of Lucie
- Young Lucie Aubrac - Lucie's Memoirs - Lucie Aubrac Film Poster - Lucie Aubrac at age 90.
- Young Lucie Aubrac - Lucie Aubrac with French President - Aubrac Couple
- Ho Chi Minh, Lucie Aubrac and her daughter, Elizabette - Aubrac Couple.
- Aubrac Couple. - Lucie Aubrac Film Trailer.
Libération-sud Resistance Puzzel
1. From what you now know of Lucie Aubrac, describe what you think her childhood may have been like and what you think may have influenced her.
Recommended Reading List
Lucie Aubrac Memoirs:
By Charlotte Dinan 10EhiX
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